what is a hybrid car??
A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to propel the vehicle.Common power sources include:
On-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled power source (internal combustion engine or fuel cell)
Air and internal combustion engines
Human powered bicycle with electric motor or gas engine assist
Human-powered or sail boat with electric power
The term most commonly refers to Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which include internal combustion engines and electric motors.
There were large Chinese wheelbarrows depicted with sails and masts.Likewise, there are the same Chinese wheelbarrows with sailing masts depicted in the Atlas of Gerardus Mercator (1512–1594 AD), as well as the 1626 AD book Kingdome of Chinay J. Speed. The English poet John Milton (1608–1674 AD) popularized the Chinese sailing carriage in Europe with a poem written in 1665.Two-wheeled and cycle-type vehicles
Mopeds and electric bicycles are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider’s muscles. Early prototypes of motorcycles in the late 1800s used the same principles.
In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel, e.g. using a hub motor, a roller pressing onto a tire, or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element. Human and motor torques are added together. Almost all manufactured models are of this type. See Motorized bicycles, Mopeds and for more information.
In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. This is converted into electricity and can be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque required because none is available from the pedals. SH bicycles are commercially available, because they are very simple in theory and manufacturing.
The first known prototype and publication of an SH bicycle is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3’884’317) in 1975. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite SH lightweight vehicle which used power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In 1995 Thomas Müller designed a “Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb” in his 1995 diploma thesis and built a functional vehicle. In 1996 Jürg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built an SH bicycle and in 1998 mounted the system onto a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). In 1999 Harald Kutzke described his concept of the “active bicycle”: the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation. Until 2005 Fuchs and colleagues built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles.
Hybrid power trains are used for diesel-electric or turbo-electric railway locomotives, buses, heavy goods vehicles, mobile hydraulic machinery, and ships. Ships with both sails and engines are an early form of hybrid which may return to more common use as costs of fuels rises. Typically some form of heat engine (usually diesel) drives an electric generator or hydraulic pump which power one or more electric or hydraulic motors. There are advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements especially when multiple drives—e.g. driven wheels or propellers—are required. There is power lost in the double conversion from typically diesel fuel to electricity to power an electric or hydraulic motor. With large vehicles the advantages often outweigh the disadvantages especially as the conversion losses typically decrease with size. Presently there is no or relatively little energy storage capacity on most heavy vehicles, e.g. auxiliary batteries and hydraulic accumulators—this is changing.
An example of a typical “hybrid” is the new French, Bombadier-built railroad engines called the AGC (Autorail Grande Capacite, high-capacity railcar) which have dual mode (diesel and electric motors) and dual voltage capabilities (1500 and 25000 V) allowing it to be used on many different rail systems. The first operational prototype of a hybrid train engine with significant energy storage and energy regeneration capability has been introduced in Japan as the Kiha E200. It utilizes battery packs of lithium ion batteries mounted on the roof to store recovered energy.In the U.S., General Electric introduced a prototype railroad engine with their “Ecomagination” technology in 2007. They store energy in a large set of sodium nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries to capture and store energy normally dissipated during dynamic braking or coasting downhill. They expect at least a 10% reduction in fuel use with this system and are now spending about $2 billion/yr on hybrid research.Variants of typical diesel-electrical locomotives are like the Green Goat (GG) and Green Kid (GK) switching/yard engines built by Canada’s Railpower Technologies. They utilize a large set of heavy duty long life (~10 yr) rechargeable lead acid (Pba) batteries and 1000 to 2000 HP electric motors as the primary motive sources and a new clean burning diesel generator (~160 Hp) for recharging the batteries that is used only as needed. No power or fuel are wasted for idling—typically 60–85% of the time for these type locomotives. Its unclear if dynamic braking (regenerative) power is recaptured for reuse; but in principle should be easily utilized. Since these engines typical need extra weight for traction purposes anyway the battery pack’s weight is a negligible penalty. In addition the diesel generator and battery package are normally built on an existing “retired” “yard” locomotive’s frame for significant additional cost savings. The existing motors and running gear are all rebuilt and reused. Diesel fuel savings of 40–60% and up to 80% pollution reductions are claimed over that of a “typical” older switching/yard engine. The same advantages that existing hybrid cars have for use with frequent starts and stops and idle periods apply to typical switching yard use. “Green Goats” locomotives have been purchased by Canadian Pacific Railway, BNSF Railway, Kansas City Southern Railway and Union Pacific Railroad among others.
Railpower Technologies Corp. engineers working with TSI Terminal Systems Inc. in Vancouver, British Columbia are testing a hybrid diesel electric power unit with battery storage for use in Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) cranes. RTG cranes are typically used for loading and unloading shipping containers onto trains or trucks in ports and container storage yards. The energy used to lift the containers can be partially regained when they are lowered. Diesel fuel and emission reductions of 50–70% are predicted by Railpower engineers.First systems are expected to be operational in 2007
Road Transport, Commercial Vehicles
GM has launched hybrid versions of its full-size GMC Yukon and Chevrolet Tahoe SUVs’ for 2008Early hybrid systems are being investigated for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with some operational trucks and buses starting to come into use. The main obstacles seem to be smaller fleet sizes and the extra costs of a hybrid system are not quite compensated for by fuel savings—yet. Advances in technology and lowered battery cost and higher capacity etc. developed in the hybrid car industry are already filtering into truck use as Toyota, Ford, GM and others introduce hybrid pickups and SUVs. Kenworth Truck Company recently introduced a hybrid-electric truck, called the Kenworth T270 Class 6 that for city usage seems to be competitive.FedEx and others are starting to invest in hybrid delivery type vehicles—particularly for city use where hybrid technology may pay off first.The U.S. military is investigating hybrid Humvees and other vehicles
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